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Table 2 Results of statistical analysis of the Aesthetic Index and its individual items.

From: TRACE (Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation), a routine clinical tool to evaluate aesthetics in scoliosis patients: development from the Aesthetic Index (AI) and repeatability

  Kappa statistics range Percent of agreement 95% level of agreement (range) Minimum Significant Change
  Intra-raters Inter-raters Intra-raters Inter-raters Intra-raters Inter-raters Intra-raters Inter-raters
Aesthetic Index 0.28–0.41 0.17–0.28 46.2–55.6 37.6–41.5 2/7 (98.7–99.4%) 2/7 (92.5–99.4%) 3/7 3/7
Shoulders 0.42–0.53 0.30–0.35 64.4–73.7 58.3–61.2 1/3 (99.4–100%) 1/3 (96.9–100%) 2/3 2/3
Scapulae 0.50–0.58 0.20–0.43 69.4–76.9 53.5–61.9 1/3 (98.1–100%) 1/3 (95.6–100%) 2/3 2/3
Waist 0.48–0.70 0.28–0.33 75.6–82.5 62.8–66.1 1/3 (100–100%) 1/3 (98.7–100%) 2/3 2/3