Vertebrae significantly affected by curvature. This representative whole mount skeleton shows the vertebrae that are most affected by curvature, as shown by analysis of ratios. In the region of lordosis, the amphicoelous centra of vertebrae 1-8 are distorted such that the height is increased on the dorsal side (black stars) and reduced on the ventral side, vertebra 6 is wedged such that the dorsal length is reduced relative to the ventral, and vertebrae 1,4,5,8 have reduced midline width. Curved females have more slender vertebra numbers 4,5,6,7 compared to curved males. In the region of kyphosis, vertebrae 10-14 have an increased height on the ventral side and reduced on the dorsal side (white stars), vertebrae 10 and 11 are wedged (have a reduced ventral length relative to their dorsal length), and vertebrae 9,10, 11, 13, 15 have reduced midline widths.