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Table 2 Association of rod fracture risk with demographic characteristics

From: Risk factors for rod fracture after posterior correction of adult spinal deformity with osteotomy: a retrospective case-series

Confounders Subgroups Rod(s) fracture Odds ratio (95 % Cl: min; max) P(χ2)
Yes No
Gender Female 3 47 0.3 (0.07; 1.6) 0.2
Male 4 21
Age 24–59 years 2 33   
  60–82 years 5 35 0.4 (0.08; 2.3) 0.3
Ethnicity Caucasian 6 60 N/A >0.5
Hispanic 0 4
Refused 1 4
Body mass index (BMI) >30 2 14 1.2 (0.2; 6.7) >0.5
≤30 5 41
Previous thoracolumbar surgery Primary 0 16 N/A 0.3
Reoperation 7 52
Smoking status Never smoker 3 30 0.9 (0.2; 4.2) >0.5
Ever smoker 4 35
Pseudarthrosis present at operation Yes 2 13 1.7 (0.3; 9.7) >0.5
No 5 55