Skip to main content

Table 1 Reference data used for age-specific prevalence estimates (%) for degenerative features of the spinal column (Brinjikji et al. [3]) and paravertebral muscle fat (%; ± standard deviation; Crawford et al. [11] and Valentin et al. [12]) according to age. Sample sizes are in parentheses

From: Rate of lumbar paravertebral muscle fat infiltration versus spinal degeneration in asymptomatic populations: an age-aggregated cross-sectional simulation study

Study   Age (years)  
Brinjikji et al. 2015 [3] Imaging Finding 20 30 40 50 n
Disk degeneration 37 % (273) 52 % (604) 68 % (415) 80 % (311) (1603)
Disk signal loss 17 % (46) 33 % (142) 54 % (352) 73 % (73) (613)
Disk height loss 24 % (15) 34 % (163) 45 % (186) 56 % (208) (572)
Disk bulge 30 % (55) 40 % (101) 50 % (151) 60 % (123) (430)
Disk protrusion 29 % (87) 31 % (468) 33 % (490) 36 % (363) (1408)
Annular fissure 19 % (167) 20 % (350) 22 % (426) 23 % (53) (996)
Facet degeneration 4 % (0), (100)a 9 % (0), (100)a 18 % (596) 32 % (53) (849)
Spondylolisthesis 3 % (0), (100)a 5 % (0), (100)a 8 % (31) 14 % (53) (284)
Crawford et al. 2015 [11] Paravertebral muscles 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–60  
MF + ES 12.4 ± 3.7(20) 15.9 ± 5.0(20) 15.7 ± 4.5 (20) 18.1 ± 7.8 (20) (80)
Multifidus 16.3 ± 5.3 (20) 20.8 ± 6.4 (20) 21.6 ± 6.1 (20) 24.1 ± 8.7 (20) (80)
Erector spinae 10.1 ± 4.7 (20) 12.9 ± 4.3 (20) 12.4 ± 3.4 (20) 14.7 ± 7.3 (20) (80)
Valentin et al. 2015 [12] Paravertebral muscles 18–25   45–60   
Psoas 35.7 ± 2.0 (12)   37.1 ± 1.5 (12)   (24)
MF + ES 40.2 ± 3.0 (12)   42.8 ± 2.9 (12)   (24)
Multifidus 40.7 ± 3.4 (12)   43.9 ± 3.7 (12)   (24)
Erector spinae 39.6 ± 2.8 (12)   41.8 ± 2.3 (12)   (24)
  1. MF + ES multifidus and erector spinae combined, n total sample size
  2. aSample size of 100 assumed in simulation