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Table 3 Mean (standard deviation) values at baseline (top) and change at 6 weeks (bottom) for sagittal alignment according to responder group

From: Change of sagittal spinal alignment and its association with pain and function after lumbar surgery augmented with an interspinous implant

Case Numbers Total Moderate Minimal Non
Back Pain 40 17 6 17
Leg Pain 35 13 6 16
Function 40 10 8 22
Baseline
 LL (°) Back 50.9 (13.6) 54.6 (14.8) 55.2 (10.3)
Leg 54.2 (14.3) 46.7 (11.5) 54.5 (11.1)
Function 47.9 (14.6) 56.2 (7.4) 54.8 (11.9)
 SI (°) Back 36.1 (8.4) 36.2 (6.9) 36.7 (6.7)
Leg 37.1 (8.1) 33.8 (4.4) 36.6 (7.6)
Function 35.4 (8.5) 33.9 (9.1) 37.3 (6.6)
 PDA (°) Back 8.0 (5.1) 10.8 (4.4) 9.9 (6.6)
Leg 7.4 (5.8) 9.8 (5.1) 10.2 (5.8)
Function 7.7 (5.3) 7.0 (5.8) 10.3 (5.8)
 SDA (°) Back 9.3 (5.5) 13.4 (2.4) 9.3 (4.6)
Leg 10.8 (4.6) 7.0 (6.6) 10.3 (4.5)
Function 9.6 (4.7) 10.2 (3.5) 10.0 (5.4)
 RSB (Rmm) Back 17.2 (43.3) 2.3 (45.7) −4.8 (27.1)
Leg 10.6 (38.3) 17.3 (43.2) −0.8 (37.0)
Function 26.7 (42.3) −3.4 (48.1) −1.0 (32.3)
6 weeks – Baseline
 LL (°) Back 2.6 (11.9) −1.9 (5.9) −1.8 (6.5)
Leg 3.3 (13.2) −0.7 (3.9) −1.7 (6.6)
Function 5.4 (15.2) −0.2 (3.3) −2.0 (5.6)
 SI (°) Back −0.9 (5.4) 1.6 (3.1) 1.5 (4.2)
Leg −1.6 (4.4) 1.1 (3.4) 1.6 (4.9)
Function −0.9 (5.1) −0.8 (4.3) 1.3 (4.5)
 PDA (°) Back −0.7 (4.4) −1.9 (3.5) −3.8 (3.2)
Leg −1.2 (4.4) −1.7 (2.2) −3.0 (4.1)
Function −0.9 (4.7) 1.8 (3.8) −3.6 (3.1)
 SDA (°) Back 0.1 (4.7) −2.3 (2.2) 0.3 (4.4)
Leg 1.1 (4.5) 1.0 (4.2) −0.7 (4.4)
Function 1.2 (4.7) −1.3 (4.3) −0.5 (4.2)
 RSB (Rmm) Back 1.6 (26.2) −0.3 (13.3) 11.5 (15.2)
Leg 0.2 (28.7) −3.1 (9.1) 11.2 (15.5)
Function −6.2 (31.7) 3.7 (5.9) 10.6 (15.0)
  1. Moderate = responders improving more than 30% in one or more variable; Minimal = responders improving 20–29% for pain and 15–29% for function; Non non-responders with less than minimal improvement (or actual deterioration), LL lumbar lordosis, SI sacral inclination, PDA primary disc angle, SDA supradjacent disc angle, and RSB regional sagittal balance, Rmm system relative metric for RSB. Significant differences are indicated in bold (p < 0.05)