|Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) ||A line with numbers 0 to 10 displayed at equal intervals, where 0 means no pain and 10 means the worst pain imaginable.||
NRS has been validated among older adults [300, 311, 312].|
The completion rate was high for people with cognitive impairment. The completion rate decreased in people with mild (76%) to moderate (58%) cognitive impairment .
|Faces Pain Scale (FPS) Revised Faces Pain Scale (FPS-R) [206, 207]||Consists of different facial expressions to indicate different severity of pain experienced by patients.||
Both are reliable and valid in older people with cognitive impairments and with different cultural background [204, 209, 210, 314, 315]|
For patients with deficits in facial recognition, the results should be interpreted with care .
|Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) ||A descriptor scale presented with a graphic thermometer showing a color gradient from white to red in order to help patients rate their pain intensity as temperature. Additional choices between words are available to improve the sensitivity of the scale.||
Older adults with cognitive impairment are more likely to correctly complete IPT as compared to NRS, Verbal Descriptor Scale, FPS, and visual analog scale .|
IPT is the most preferred scale by both young and older adults (with osteoarthritic pain) .
|Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) ||Consists of seven verbal descriptions to indicate different severity of pain ranging from 0 to 6, where 0 means “no pain” and 6 means “pain as bad as it could be.”||
VDS score agrees with the ratings of FPS or NRS but their associations are not linearly related .|
The majority (90%) of people with moderate cognitive impairment can accurately use VDS .
A simplified version has been developed for people with severe dementia 
|Visual Analog Scale (VAS) ||A 10-cm line with 0 means no pain and 10 means the worst possible pain.||VAS has significantly higher error (approximately 20%) among older adults as compared to NRS and VDS [203, 320, 321].|