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Table 1 Demographic, radiology, and clinical evaluation at baseline according to surgical and non-surgical management

From: Functional outcome of non-surgical and surgical management for de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis: a mean follow-up of 10 years

  All Non-surgical Surgical p value
Number of patients 29 14 (48%) 15 (52%)  
Female:Male 22:7 11:3 11:4  
Age at baseline, mean ± SD, (years) 65.2 ± 8.2 67.0 ± 8.8 63.5 ± 7.5 0.253
BMI, mean ± SD, (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 3.8 24.3 ± 5.6 24.9 ± 3.2 0.790
Coronal Cobb angle, median [IQR], (°) 19.0 [16.0–25.5] 21.0 [16.0–30.0] 18.0 [16.0–22.0] 0.370
Follow-up time, mean ± SD, (years) 10.9 ± 1.9 10.3 ± 1.5 10.5 ± 1.4 0.836
Apical vertebra, (n)
 L1 2 2 0  
 L2 12 5 7  
 L3 12 6 6  
 L4 3 1 2  
Convex side, (n)
 Right sided 14 10 4  
 Left sided 15 4 11  
Back pain, n (%) 29 (100%) 14 (100%) 15 (100%)  
Radicular leg pain, n (%) 24 (83%) 11 (79%) 13 (87%)  
 Right 11 7 4  
 Left 5 1 4  
 Left and right 8 3 5  
 Not present 5 3 2  
Neurological symptoms, n (%) 4 (14%) 1 (7%) 3 (20%)  
Muscle weakness in the legs, n (%) 10 (34%) 6 (43%) 4 (27%)  
 Right 4 2 2  
 Left 3 2 1  
 Left and right 3 2 1  
 Not present 11 7 4  
 Data not available 8 1 7  
Numbness in the legs, n (%) 3 (10%) 2 (14%) 1 (7%)  
 Yes 3 2 1  
 Not present 14 10 4  
 Data not available 12 2 10  
  1. Values of age, body mass index (BMI), Cobb angle, and follow-up time are expressed as the mean and standard deviation (normal distribution of data) or as the median and interquartile range [IQR] (non-normal distribution of data). Percentages are calculated from the total number of patients
  2. P-value were calculated between non-surgical and surgical group using Student’s t test (normal distribution of data) or Mann-Whitney U test (non-normal distributed data)
  3. Neurological symptoms evaluated during physical examination by straight leg raise test, patellar, Achilles, and plantar reflex