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Table 7 Description of data extracted from all included articles

From: Does postural stability differ between adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and typically developed? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Author Year Force platform Study protocol COP parameters and direction of displacement Values for AIS, CON, p value
Sahli et al. 2013 [42] Static Stabilometric platform (SATEL, Blagnac, France), 40 Hz Heels 5 cm apart, 30° angle between long axes of the feet. Eye focused at eye level, white cross on wall 2 m away, 3 trials of 51.2 s, 30-s rest interval Mean ± SD Position of ML #AIS = 22 ± 13.1 mm, #CON = 17 ± 26 mm, p < 0001*
Mean ± SD Positon of AP #AIS = 25 ± 37.4 mm, #CON = 22 ± 22.5 mm, p < 0.001*
Mean ± SD Sway Area #AIS = 490 ± 318 mm2, #CON = 310 ± 364 mm2, p < 0.001*
Park et al.
2013 [43]
MFT balance tester
(MFT balance test- basic, Multifunktionale trainsgerate, Germany)
Barefoot, subjects were to locate their centre of gravity into 5 different sections from the centre of a circle, 2 trials of 30 s ×Mean left and right balance in kg/m2 derived from the absolute values by subtracting the rate of the opposite direction from the rate of the selected direction AIS G1 = 12.57 ± 9.55 kg/m2, G2 = 13.47 ± 11.54 kg/m2
G3 = 12.33 ± 10.68 kg/m2, CON = 2.38 ± 1.96 kg/m2,
p < 0.01 between all groups*
×Mean forward and backward balance in kg/m2 derived from the absolute values by subtracting the rate of the opposite direction from the rate of the selected direction AIS G1 = 20.44 ± 12.91 kg/m2, G2 = 22.14 ± 18.03 kg/m2, G3 = 16.28 ± 11.43 kg/m2, CON = 10.37 ± 8.51 kg/m2,
p < 0.01 between all groups*
de Santiago et al. 2013 [44] EMG system force platform
(Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil), 100 Hz
Feet shoulder width apart, arms along body, eyes focused at eye level at 5 cm diameter black circle 1.5 m away, 3 trials of 60 s, self-chosen rest xMean ± SD Sway Area #AIS = 60 ± 1.4 mm2, #CON = 40 ± 2.8 mm2, p < 0.0001*
Stylianides et al. 2013 [45] AMTI force platform
model OR6–5 (Newton, MA), 64 Hz
Barefoot, heels 23 cm apart, feet external rotated 15°, eyes focused at eye level target 1.2 m away, 3 trials of 64 s Mean ± SD Range of ML #AIS = 19.8 ± 9 mm, #CON = 14.5 ± 6.3 mm, p < 0.05*
Mean ± SD Range of AP, posterior displacement #AIS = 32 ± 13.3 mm, #CON = 25.8 ± 7.8 mm, p < 0.05*
Gruber et al. 2011 [46] AMTI force platform
(AMTI, Newton, MA), 1080 Hz
Feet shoulder width apart, hands by the side, looking straight ahead, 3 trials of 10 s Mean ± SD Range of ML AIS = 28.99 ± 25.55 mm, CON = 17.25 ± 7.09 mm, p = 0.025*
Mean ± SD Range of AP AIS = 28.39 ± 11.44 mm, CON = 25.00 ± 11.72 mm, p = NS
Mean ± SD Sway Area AIS = 3.73 ± 0.40 mm2, CON = 3.48 ± 0.38 mm2, p < 0.005*
Dalleau et al. 2011 [47] AMTI force platform
model OR-5 (Newton, MA, USA), 64 Hz
Barefoot, heels 23 cm apart, feet pointing externally 15°, eyes focused on target 1.2 m ahead, 3 trials of 30 s ×Median (IQR) Range of ML #AIS = 15.0 mm (6.5 mm), #CON = 12.0 mm (7.0 mm), p = 0.02*
×Median (IQR) Range of AP, posterior displacement #AIS = 25.5 mm (8.2 mm), #CON = 16.5 mm (7.2 mm), p < 0.01*
Valles et al.
2009 [48]
2xAMTI force plates under each foot model 0TS6–500, 100 Hz 3 trials of 30 s ×Mean ± SD Sway Area AIS = 2728 ± 4177 mm2, CON = 2152 ± 2767 mm2, p = NS
Beaulieu et al. 2009 [49] AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA, USA), 64 Hz
Heels spaced 20 cm apart, feet pointing externally 15°, eyes focused on target 1.2 m away, 3 trials of 64 s,
2-min rest intervals
Mean ± SD Position of ML, right displacement
Mean ± SD Range of ML
#AIS = 4.58 ± 11.5 mm (OB & PB), #CON = 4.0 ± 9.0 mm, p = NS between OB, PB and CON groups.
#AIS = 541.3 ± 244.9 mm, #CON = 184.6 ± 153.8 mm, p < 0.001* OB vs CON, p < 0.001* PB vs CON
Mean ± SD Position of AP, posterior displacement
Mean ± SD Range of AP
#AIS = 73.8 ± 13.0 mm (OB & PB), #CON = 64.0 ± 13.0 mm, p = 0.04* OB vs CON, p = 0.001* PB vs CON
#AIS = 629.0 ± 156.7 mm, #CON = 233.3 ± 186.2 mm, p < 0.001* OB vs CON, p < 0.001* PB vs CON
Mean ± SD Sway Area #AIS = 245.0 ± 172.5 mm2 (OB & PB), #CON = 180 ± 115 mm2, p = NS OB vs CON, p = 0.008* PB vs CON
Zabjek et al. 2008 [50] 2× AMTI force platforms under each foot, 20 Hz Quiet standing position, 4 trials of 2 min, adequate rest between each trial ×Mean ± SD Position estimate gravity line of COM ML, right displacement AIS = 3.7 ± 11,08 mm, CON = 4.6 ± 9,69 mm, p = NR
×Mean ± SD Position estimate gravity line of COM in AP, anterior displacement AIS = 30.2 ± 16,06 mm, CON = 28.3 ± 16,16 mm, p = NR
Dalleau et al. 2007 [51] AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA, USA), 64 Hz
Barefoot, heels spaced 23 cm apart, feet pointing externally 15°, arms along body, eyes focused at eye level target 1.2 m away, 3 trials of 64 s, 60-s rest intervals Mean ± SD Position of ML, right displacement
Mean ± SD Range of ML
AIS = 3.3 ± 12.0 mm, CON = 3.4 ± 6.8 mm, p = NS
#AIS = 18 ± 3.5 mm, #CON = 13 ± 2.5 mm, p = 0.001*
Mean ± SD Position of AP, posterior displacement
Mean ± SD Range of AP
AIS = 62.3 ± 10.7 mm, CON = 71.3 ± 14.3 mm, p = 0.043*
#AIS = 29.5 ± 8 mm, #CON = 24 ± 7 mm, p = 0.016*
Simoneau et al. 2006a [52] AMTI force platform
model OR6–6 (Watertown, USA), 200 Hz
Barefoot with feet 10 cm apart, arms along body, eyes focused at eye level target 2 m away, 6 trials of 30 s divided into two 15-s intervals ×Mean distance between consecutive zones of 3 mm radius, sway density curve #AIS = 3.8 mm ± 2,3, #CON = 1.69 mm ± 2,14, p < 0.01*
Chow et al. 2006 [53] AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA, USA), 64 Hz
Barefoot, heels 10 cm apart, feet pointing externally 30°, arms along body
Eyes focused at eye level 10 cm × 15 cm reference square 2 m away, 3 trials of 60 s, 3-min rest intervals
×Mean Range of AP AIS & CON = 31.9 mm averaged p = NR
Simoneau et al. 2006b [54] AMTI force platform, 200 Hz Barefoot with feet 10 cm apart, arms along body, eyes focused at eye level target 2 m away, 6 trials of 15 s Mean ± SD Range of ML #AIS = 13 ± 6.26 mm, #CON = 5.8 ± 6.39 mm, p = NR
Mean ± SD Range of AP #AIS = 19.5 ± 5.89 mm, #CON = 10.9 ± 6.1 mm, p = NR
Allard et al.
2004 [55]
AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA, USA), 64 Hz
Heels spaced 23 cm apart, feet pointing externally 15°, eyes focused on target 1.2 m away, 3 trials of 64 s Mean ± SD Position of ML, right displacement AIS = 5.3 ± 14.2 mm, CON = 3.2 ± 9.3 mm, p = NS
Mean ± SD Position of AP, posterior displacement AIS = 26.1 ± 13.3 mm, CON = 36.6 ± 12.4 mm, p = 0.002*
Mean ± SD Sway Area #AIS = 275 ± 175 mm2, CON = 183 ± 111 mm2, p = 0.010*
Silferi et al. 2004 [56] AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA), 64 Hz
Heels spaced 20 cm apart, feet external rotation 15°. Focused ahead at a target 1.2 m away, 3 trials of 64 s, 30-s rests ×RMS Amplitude, horizontal motion of ML #AIS = 0.5 ± 0.5 mm, #CON = 0.2 ± 01 mm, p < 0.05*
×RMS Amplitude, horizontal motion of AP #AIS = 0.5 ± .2 mm, #CON = 0.7 ± 0.4 mm, p = NS
Nault et al.
2002 [57]
AMTI force platform
(Newton, MA)
at 64 Hz
Heels spaced 20 cm apart, feet external rotation 15°, arms along body, eyes focused at eye level target 1.2 m away,
3 trials of 60 s
Mean ± SD Position of ML, right displacement AIS = 6.5 ± 10.1 mm, CON = 4.4 ± 9.1 mm, p = NS
Mean ± SD Position of AP, posterior displacement AIS = 72.7 ± 12.4 mm, CON = 85.0 ± 12.0 mm, p = 0.043*
Mean ± SD Sway Area AIS = 274.0 ± 154.0 mm2, CON = 190.3 ± 123.5 mm2, p = 0.009*
Chen et al.
1998 [58]
Kistler Instrument Corp
at 50 Hz
Barefoot, feet parallel 8 cm apart
1 trial of 30 s
Mean ± SD Range ML AIS = 17.0 ± 6.8 mm, CON = 13.4 ± 5.1 mm, p = 0.05*
Mean ± SD Range AP AIS = 25.9 ± 13.2 mm, CON = 20.4 ± 4.2 mm, p = NS
Mean ± SD Sway Area AIS = 765 ± 419 mm2, CON = 447 ± 98 mm2, p = 0.004*
Sahlstrand et al. 1978 [59] Force platform
L’Electronique Appliquee (Montrouge, France)
Heels together, feet external rotation 30°, eyes focused at eye level on a 10 × 10 cm reference square 5 m away, 1 trial of 2 min with 2-min rest intervals ×RMS ± SD Range of ML
×Mean ± SD Position of ML, right displacement
#AIS = 4.8 ± 1.38 mm, #CON = 4.4 ± 1.13 mm, p < 0.05*
Data NR, p < 0.05*
×RMS ± SD Range of AP
×Mean ± SD Position of AP
#AIS = 6.2 ± 1.9 mm, #CON = 5.6 ± 2.0 mm, p < 0.05*
Data NR, p = NR
×Mean ± SD Sway Area #AIS = 107.1 ± 4.9 mm2, #CON = 78.5 ± 4.9 mm2, p < 0.05*
  1. AIS adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, AP anteroposterior, CON typically developed adolescents, COP centre of pressure, IQR Inter quartile range, ML mediolateral, NR statistical significance not reported, NS no statistical significant, OB observation group, PB pre-bracing group; p value < 0.05 denotes statistical significance between groups*; SD standard deviation; vs = compared to; x = excluded from meta-analysis; # = results have been extracted from graph or figure