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Table 12 Comparison of Beighton, Carter and Wilkinson, Bulbena and Marshall scales for diagnosis of joint hypermobility

From: Joint hypermobility in children with idiopathic scoliosis: SOSORT award 2011 winner

Criterion Beighton
[4, 23, 34]
Carter and Wilkinson
[29]
Bulbena
[36]
Marshall[35]
Thumb abduction 1a 1 1 Grade I through V
Elbow hyperextension > 10° 1a 1 1  
Fifth finger extension > 90° in MCP joint 1a 1
passive hyperextension of II-V fingers parallel to the forearm
1  
Knee hyperextension > 10° 1a 1   
Foot dorsiflexion   1
(> 45°)
1
(> 20°)
 
Palms flat on floor 1    
Passive shoulder external rotation > 85°    1  
Knee flexion allows the heel to make contact with the buttocks    1  
Passive shift of the patella to the lateral side of the tibia     
Passive hip abduction > 85°    1  
Hyperextension of MTP joints of the first finger > 90°    1  
Appearance of ecchymoses after hardly noticed minimal trauma    1  
Total score 9 5 10 I-V
Number of point for diagnosis 4 [4, 6, 33, 34]
7 [32]
3 [29] female ≥5, male ≥4 [36]  
  1. a 1 point per each side