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Table 1 Research performed on SEAS approach: prospective studies

From: SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis): a modern and effective evidence based approach to physiotherapic specific scoliosis exercises

Paper Topic Design Population Results
Negrini S et al. [43] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS short-term Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP 1 year Braced: SEAS 1 = UP 5 (P = 0.07) °C: ↑ SEAS (P < 0.05) Clinical results: SEAS > UP (P < 0.05)
Patients 23 28
Females 18 19
Pathology AIS
Age 12.7 ± 2.2 12.1 ± 1.1
°C 15.5 ± 5.4° 14.9 ± 6.0°
Other No differences at baseline
Negrini S et al. [44] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS short-term Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP 1 year Braced: SEAS 6.1% > UP 25.0% (P < 0.05) °C: SEAS ↑ UP SEAS: 23.5% ↑, 11.8% ↓ (excluded braced) UP: 11.1% ↑, 13.9% ↓ (excluded braced)
Patients 35 39
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age 12.4 ± 2.2
°C 15.0 ± 6.0°
Others No differences at baseline
Romano M et al. [45] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS medium term Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP 2 years Braced: SEAS 10% > UP 27.6% (P < 0.05)
Patients 20 37
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age 12.7 ± 2.2 12.19 ± 3
°C 15.3 ± 5.4
Others ATR: 8.9 ± 2.8°
Romano M et al. [46] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS 10-20° short-term Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP End of growth (Risser 3) RR UP vs SEAS 1.74 (IC95 1.22-2.26)
Patients 101 187
Females 190
Pathology AIS
Age 0ver 10 years
°C curves range 10-20°
Others Risser 0–3 ; No differences at baseline
Negrini S et al. [47] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP NOE End of Growth (Risser 3) °C - Intent-to-Treat Analysis RR NOE < SEAS 1.51 (IC95 1.21-1.80) (P < 0.05) RR NOE < UP 1.40 (IC95 1.08-1.72) (P < 0.05) RR UP = SEAS (P = NS) TRACE: ↑ SEAS (1.8) (P < 0.05); ↑ UP (1.5) (P < 0.05); SEAS > NOE (P < 0.05)
Patients 145 148
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age  
°C  
Others No differences at baseline
Negrini S et al. [48] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS in preparation to bracing Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP First x-ray without brace at 5 months °C: SEAS > UP Clinical results (improvement >5°C, >2° ATR): ↑ SEAS (P < 0.05); ↑ UP (P < 0.05); SEAS > UP (P < 0.05)
Patients 110
Females 34
Pathology AIS
Age 13.5 ± 2.4
°C 31.1 ± 11.1
Other No differences at baseline
Zaina F et al. [49] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS in brace weaning Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP DIS NOE End of treatment °C: ↓ DIS 3.9° (P < 0.05); ↓ NOE 3.1° (P < 0.05). UP > DIS (P < 0.05)
Patients 39 DIS 19 NOE 10
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age 15.1 ± 1.0
°C 22.0 ± 8.0°
Others No differences at baseline
Romano M et al. [50] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS for balance function short-term Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS NOE NOR 1 year Balance function: SEAS > NOR > NOE (P < 0.05)
Patients 20 NOE 20 NOR 150
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age  
°C  
Others No differences at baseline
Romano M et al. [51] Efficacy of PSSE in hyperkyphosis Prospective Controlled Cohort Treatments SEAS UP End of growth Outcome: Plumbline distances at C7 and L3 C7: SEAS ↑ 61 ± 12 to 39 ± 11 (P < 0.05); UP ↑ 54 ± 12 to 41 ± 11 (P < 0.05) L3: SEAS ↑ 47 ± 11 to 41 ± 13 (P < 0.05)
Patients 18 22
Females 21
Pathology Hyperkyphosis
Age  
°C  
Others No differences at baseline
  1. PSSE: Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises; SEAS: SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises therapy; UP: Usual Physiotherapy; DIS: Discontinuous Exercises; NOE: No Exercises; NOR: normal subjects; AIS: Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents; °C: Cobb degrees; ATR: Angle of Trunk Rotation measured through Bunnell Scoliometer in degrees; TRACE: TRACE (Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation) from 1 (best) to 12 (worst).
  2. Statistics: RR: Relative Risk of failure; IC95: 95% Confidence Interval; ITT: Intent-to-Treat Analysis.
  3. Results: ↑: improved; ↓: worsened (progressed); >: better than; =: no differences; braced: number of braced patients; Clinical results: improvement of at least 5° Cobb, 2° ATR.