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Table 2 Researches performed on SEAS approach: retrospective studies

From: SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis): a modern and effective evidence based approach to physiotherapic specific scoliosis exercises

Paper Topic Design Population Results
Negrini S et al. [52] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS Retrospective Controlled Cohort Treatment SEAS UP End of growth (Risser 3) °C: SEAS ↑ > UP ↓ (P < 0.05) ATR: SEAS ↑ (P < 0.05) Hump: SEAS ↑ (P < 0.05)
Patients 33 89
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age 13.8 ± 3.1
°C 15.8 ± 11.9°
Others ATR 5.6 ± 3.1°
Romano M et al. [53] Efficacy of PSSE in AIS Retrospective Controlled Cohort Treatment SEAS UP End of growth (Risser 3) Braced: SEAS 28% > UP 43% (P < 0.05) Brace hours: SEAS > UP (P < 0.05) ATR: SEAS > UP (P < 0.05) TRACE: SEAS > UP (P < 0.05)
Patients 78 98
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age  
°C 14.7°
Others ATR 6.3° - No differences at baseline
Romano M et al. [55] Efficacy of sport associated with PSSE in AIS Retrospective Controlled Cohort Treatment SEAS Sport SEAS No Sport End of growth (Risser 3) °C =
Patients 88 56
Females 497
Pathology AIS
Age  
°C 14.8 ± 5.7 16.6 ± 13.1
Others No differences at baseline
Treatment SEAS + Brace Sport SEAS + Brace No Sport End of growth (Risser 3) °C: No Sport ↑ 3.87° > Sport ↑ 3.01° (P < 0,05).
Patients 182 217
Females  
Pathology AIS
Age  
°C 32.2 ± 10.7 34.2 ± 13.2
Others No differences at baseline
Negrini A et al. [54] Efficacy of PSSE in adults with progressive scoliosis Retrospective Uncontrolled Cohort Treatment SEAS 3.5 years of treatment (range 1–24) °C: ↑ from 51° to 47° (P < 0.05).
Patients 31
Females 28
Pathology  
Age 38.0 ± 11.0 years
°C 51 ± 12°
Others  
  1. PSSE: Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises; SEAS: SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises therapy; UP: Usual Physiotherapy; DIS: Discontinuous Exercises; NOE: No Exercises; NOR: normal subjects; AIS: Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents; °C: Cobb degrees; ATR: Angle of Trunk Rotation measured through Bunnell Scoliometer in degrees; TRACE: TRACE (Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation) from 1 (best) to 12 (worst).
  2. Statistics: RR: Relative Risk of failure; IC95: 95% Confidence Interval; ITT: Intent-to-Treat Analysis.
  3. Results: ↑: improved; ↓: worsened (progressed); >: better than; =: no differences; braced: number of braced patients; brace hours: number of hours per day of bracing prescribed.