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Table 1 The similarities and the differences between the methods

From: Physiotherapy scoliosis-specific exercises – a comprehensive review of seven major schools

School name Treatment indication Age treated Principles of correction Classification system Breathing technique Mobilization and flexibility Brace used Evidence
Lyon (France) SOSORT 2011 guidelines * Juvenile
Adolescent
** Adult
Focuses on physical therapy exercises in preparation for brace wearing and in brace Ponseti
Lenke
Rotational angular breathing (RAB) Encouraging thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis 3D ARTbrace (Asymmetrical Rigid Torsion brace) De Mauroy JC et al. Scoliosis. 2015;10:26
Schroth (Germany) SOSORT 2011 guidelines * Early onset
* Juvenile
Adolescent
** Adult
Reshape the thorax through isometric muscle activation around the prominences (the convexities) and a specific breathing technique (called rotational angular breathing (RAB) or simply orthopedic breathing) in the collapsed areas (the concavities) Katharina Schroth’s Body Blocks Rotational angular breathing (RAB) Rib cage, spine mobilization and lower extremities flexibility 3D Chêneau brace RCT - Schreiber S et al. Scoliosis. 2015;10:24
Weiss H et al. Hard Tissue. 2013; 2(3): 27
RCT - Kuru T et al. Clinil Rehabil. 2015
Weiss HR et al. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:342–7
Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis (SES) (Italy) SOSORT 2011 guidelines Same treatment objectives for all ages Educates and trains patients to actively self-correct their posture and to incorporate that self-correction into functional exercises Ponseti Rotational angular breathing (RAB) Pre-bracing mobilization 3D Sibilla brace (Cobb <30°) Sforzesco brace (Cobb 30°–50°) RCT - Monticone M et al. Eur Spine J. 2014;23(6):1204–14
Negrini S et al. Disability and Rehabilitation 2008;30(10):772–785
Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School (BSPTS) (Spain) SOSORT 2011 guidelines * Juvenile
Adolescent
** Adult
Based on the original principles of correction established by Katharina Schroth. Like the Schroth method, the school’s aim to improve the scoliotic posture via muscle activation and the RAB technique mentioned above. Katharina Schroth’s Body Blocks and Manuel Rigo’s radiological classification Rotational angular breathing (RAB) Rib cage, spine and lower extremities flexibility 3D Rigo Chêneau brace Schroth evidence above plus:
Rigo M et al. Scoliosis 2010,5:1
Otman SN et al. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26(9): 1429–35
Dobomed (Poland) SOSORT 2011 guidelines Same treatment objectives for all ages Involves mobilization of the primary curve toward curve correction with a special emphasis on ‘kyphotization’ of the thoracic spine and/or ‘lordotization’ of the lumbar spine in closed kinetic chains Dobomed Specific Rotational angular breathing in a ‘phased-lock’ respiration technique Increase thoracic spine kyphosis and lumbar lordosis 3D Cheneau brace Durmala J et al. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2003;5(l):80–5
Durmala J et al. Scoliosis. 2009;4(Suppl 2):029
Side-Shift (United Kingdom) SOSORT 2011 guidelines Adolescent
** Adult
Built on the theory that a flexible curve can be stabilized with lateral movements and that repetitive side movements of the trunk will correct the lateral deviation of the trunk along with the coronal plane King Rotational angular breathing (RAB) Principles of Maitland and myofascial release techniques Unspecified  
Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis (FITS) (Poland) SOSORT 2011 guidelines Juvenile
Adolescent
** Adult
Based on a number of physiotherapeutic techniques that were selected and adapted specifically for the treatment of scoliosis. Examples are Proprioception Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) and myofascial release techniques No traditional classification system 3D corrective breathing into the concavities Mobilization and myofascial techniques to eliminate myofascial restrictions 3D Cheneau brace Białek M. Scoliosis. 2011;28;6(1):25
Białek M. Medicine. 2015;94(20):e863
  1. * Exercises are modified to allow participation of young children
  2. ** Exercises are modified and focus on reduction of pain