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Table 2 Imaging findings of study groups

From: The paradoxical relationship between ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and developmental lumbar spinal stenosis

Study Group Group 1 (Critical DSS) Group 2 (Relative DSS) Group 3 (Non-DSS)
Levels L4 L5 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L4 L5
Mean Spinal Canal Diameter (mm (±SD)) 13.1 (1.2) 12.9 (0.5) 16.5 14.2 (1.0) 15.2 (1.5) 15.5 (0.8) 15.2 (0.4) 23.3 17.7 (1.8)
Levels L4-L5 L5-S1 L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L4 L4-L5 L5-S1 L4-L5 L5-S1
Mean LF thickness (mm (±SD)) R: 4.4 (1.6) R: 3.3 (1.8) R: 6.1 R: 4.8 (1.8) R: 4.0 (1.8) R: 3.5 (1.6) R: 4.5 (1.7) R: 4.2 R: 3.0 (0.3)
L: 4.6 (1.9) L:3.4 (1.5) L: 2.5 L: 4.3 (1.5) L: 4.1 (1.8) L: 4.3 (2.1) L: 3.5 (1.2) L: 5.3 L: 3.2 (0.4)
Mean Fibrosis Area (% (±SD)) R: 48.6 (25.5) R: 38.5 (16.2) R: 15.3 R: 33.9 (17.8) R: 52.6 (20.6) R: 47.4 (17.8) R: 41.8 (19.2) R: 72.6 R: 59.5 (22.2)
L: 57.7 (18.2) L: 57.9 (6.4) L: 15.3 L: 70.0 (5.4) L: 52.8 (24.9) L: 43.5 (16.9) L: 48.9 (29.4) L: 66.5 L: 52.7 (27.1)
  1. LF ligamentum flavum, SD standard deviation; %: percentage, R right, L left