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Table 3 Comparison of means for DIERS-reported values (DRV) and standard average values (SAV) for each parameter

From: Appraisal of the DIERS method for calculating postural measurements: an observational study

Spine shape parameter by subgroup Mannequin Human participants
Mean DRV Mean SAV Absolute difference Change (%) Mean DRV Mean SAV Absolute difference Change (%)
Localization and distance
 Trunk length VP-DM, mm 426.95 (1.23) 426.98 (1.09) 0.03 0.01 463.35 (33.38) 465.83 (33.06) 2.48 0.53
 Trunk length VP-SP, mm 462.34 (4.92) 462.47 (2.28) 0.13 0.03 511.31 (35.03) 514.68 (33.69) 3.37 0.65
 Trunk length VP-SP, % 108.30 (1.12) 108.32 (1.11) 0.02 0.02 110.34 (1.81) 110.49 (1.77) 0.15 0.14
 Dimple distance, mm 74.80 (2.94) 74.88 (1.58) 0.08 0.10 95.64 (11.95) 97.03 (11.06) 1.40 1.44
 Dimple distance, % 17.47 (0.69) 17.49 (0.77) 0.02 0.12 20.68 (2.99) 20.90 (2.98) 0.22 1.03
Trunk and pelvis imbalances
 Trunk inclination VP-DM, ° 2.41 (0.36) 2.42 (0.64) 0.01 0.37 3.09 (2.25) 3.14 (2.31) 0.05 1.55
 Trunk inclination VP-DM, mm 18.26 (2.68) 18.32 (1.74) 0.06 0.33 25.49 (18.32) 25.99 (18.72) 0.50 1.92
 Trunk imbalance VP-DM, ° 0.78 (1.21) 0.78 (1.20) 0.00 0.62 0.16 (0.85) 0.11 (0.83) 0.04 37.28
 Trunk imbalance VP-DM, mm 5.94 (9.16) 5.99 (3.29) 0.05 0.75 1.32 (7.16) 1.00 (7.15) 0.32 31.49
 Pelvic tilt DL-DR, ° −2.25 (2.21) −2.26 (1.67) 0.01 0.50 −0.11 (3.39) 0.02 (3.46) 0.13 719.76
 Pelvic tilt DL-DR, mm −2.98 (2.90) −3.00 (1.91) 0.02 0.61 0.00 (5.78) 0.17 (5.91) 0.17 100.61
 Pelvic torsion DL-DR, ° 4.93 (0.71) 4.93 (0.89) 0.00 0.01 0.16 (2.70) −0.17 (2.51) 0.33 195.92
 Pelvic inclination dimples, ° 36.47 (1.02) 36.40 (0.91) 0.07 0.18 19.06 (7.38) 17.88 (5.97) 1.18 6.59
 Rotation correction pelvis, ° 6.18 (1.47) 6.21 (0.91) 0.03 0.47 0.07 (3.14) −0.32 (2.75) 0.40 123.16
Spinal reference points
 Inflection point ICT, mm 17.95 (2.25) 17.92 (1.68) 0.03 0.16 5.13 (10.40) 4.27 (10.15) 0.87 20.32
 Kyphotic apex, mm −81.19 (21.17) −80.64 (4.64) 0.55 0.68 −183.81 (36.58) −190.79 (24.53) 6.98 3.66
 Inflection point ITL, mm −257.38 (2.20) −257.29 (1.46) 0.09 0.03 −307.74 (36.01) −311.38 (34.68) 3.64 1.17
 Lordotic apex, mm −326.82 (4.25) −326.74 (2.23) 0.08 0.02 −384.56 (35.82) −388.31 (33.38) 3.75 0.97
 Inflection point ILS, mm −420.35 (3.59) −420.23 (2.13) 0.12 0.03 −460.46 (42.03) −463.06 (42.21) 2.60 0.56
 Fleche cervicale, mm 33.11 (1.58) 33.09 (1.28) 0.02 0.06 71.08 (19.67) 73.69 (17.61) 2.61 3.54
 Fleche lombaire, mm 27.14 (1.77) 27.16 (1.40) 0.02 0.06 36.62 (12.62) 37.24 (12.73) 0.62 1.67
 Fleche cervicale VP, mm 9.25 (0.93) 9.31 (0.99) 0.07 0.70 45.32 (16.71) 47.71 (14.29) 2.40 5.03
Spinal curve measurements
 Kyphotic angle ICT-ITL, ° 35.13 (0.72) 35.13 (0.84) 0.00 0.00 47.23 (9.35) 48.10 (9.05) 0.87 1.81
 Kyphotic angle VP-ITL, ° 31.53 (0.78) 31.55 (0.87) 0.02 0.08 45.33 (8.95) 46.27 (8.61) 0.94 2.03
 Kyphotic angle VP-T12, ° 31.47 (0.76) 31.50 (0.88) 0.03 0.08 41.87 (8.44) 42.54 (8.44) 0.68 1.59
 Lordotic angle ITL-ILS, ° 46.11 (0.63) 46.15 (0.78) 0.04 0.09 36.26 (8.53) 35.59 (8.35) 0.67 1.88
 Lordotic angle ITL-DM, ° 45.27 (1.08) 45.29 (1.05) 0.03 0.06 34.32 (8.77) 33.57 (8.53) 0.75 2.24
 Lordotic angle T12-DM, ° 45.24 (1.10) 45.26 (1.06) 0.02 0.05 30.86 (9.27) 29.84 (8.74) 1.02 3.41
 Pelvic inclination, ° 39.36 (0.50) 39.34 (0.68) 0.03 0.07 21.05 (8.74) 19.84 (7.49) 1.21 6.11
Spinal deviation
 Surface rotation RMS, ° 4.56 (0.24) 4.56 (0.44) 0.00 0.02 3.74 (1.24) 3.75 (1.37) 0.01 0.23
 Surface rotation, ° 11.26 (0.49) 11.28 (0.70) 0.02 0.15 2.35 (7.23) 1.79 (7.20) 0.57 31.68
 Surface rotation right, ° 11.26 (0.49) 11.28 (0.70) 0.02 0.15 5.97 (3.51) 5.61 (3.43) 0.36 6.41
 Surface rotation left, ° −2.20 (0.80) −2.23 (0.89) 0.04 1.78 −4.38 (2.71) −4.55 (2.93) 0.18 3.85
 Surface rotation amplitude, ° 13.49 (0.80) 13.57 (0.99) 0.08 0.60 10.38 (3.05) 10.20 (3.04) 0.18 1.78
 Trunk torsion, ° 12.08 (0.96) 12.06 (1.41) 0.02 0.18 3.96 (4.35) 3.35 (3.89) 0.61 18.11
 Lateral deviation RMS, mm 4.51 (2.11) 4.50 (1.10) 0.01 0.23 5.53 (2.92) 5.59 (2.97) 0.06 0.99
 Lateral deviation, mm 7.39 (1.33) 7.36 (1.36) 0.02 0.33 3.87 (10.05) 3.63 (10.28) 0.25 6.79
 Lateral deviation right, mm 7.39 (2.08) 7.36 (1.36) 0.02 0.33 7.86 (5.60) 7.88 (5.76) 0.02 0.25
 Lateral deviation left, mm −1.16 (0.43) −1.19 (0.57) 0.03 2.90 −4.73 (4.11) −5.01 (4.13) 0.27 5.45
 Lateral deviation amplitude, mm 8.59 (1.81) 8.60 (1.27) 0.01 0.15 12.64 (5.34) 12.93 (5.43) 0.29 2.27
  1. DRV and SAV are reported as mean (SD)
  2. DL left sacral dimple, DM middle point between the left and right sacral dimples, DR right sacral dimple, ICT cervical-thoracic inflection point, ILS lumbar-sacral inflection point, ITL thoracic-lumbar inflection point, RMS root mean square, SP sacral point, VP vertebral prominens