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Table 2 Summary of study designs, methodologies, and outcome of high-intensity zones (HIZs) in the lumbar spine

From: The association of high-intensity zones on MRI and low back pain: a systematic review

Author Year Sample size (N) Mean age (years) Radiologic methods (MRI) Prevalence The highest prevalence at disc level Association with LBP
Carragee et al. 2000 96 38    N/A No
Symptomatic, 42
Asymptomatic, 54
Symptomatic, 36
Asymptomatic, 40
1.5T anterior and posterior T2-weighted Symptomatic, 25 (59%)
Asymptomatic, 85 (24%)
Hancock et al. 2012 60 37    N/A No
Symptomatic, 30
Control, 30
1.5T sagittal T1 and T2-weighted axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 18 (30%)
Control, 7 (22%)
Takatalo et al. 2012 554     N/A No
Symptomatic, 387
Asymptomatic, 167
21 1.5T sagittal and axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 13 (3.2%)
Asymptomatic, 4 (2%)
Wang et al. 2012 623     L4/5 Yes
Symptomatic, 317
Asymptomatic, 306
50 1.5T sagittal T1-weighted sagittal and axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 115 (36%)
Asymptomatic, 85 (28%)
Liu et al. 2014 151 43    L4/5 Yes
Symptomatic, 72
Asymptomatic, 79
Symptomatic, 44
Asymptomatic, 43
1.5T sagittal T1 and T2-weighted Symptomatic, 33 (45.8%)
Asymptomatic, 16 (20%)
Yang et al. 2015 57 29    N/A Yes
Symptomatic, 25
Asymptomatic, 32
Symptomatic, 30
Asymptomatic, 28
3.0T sagittal and axial T1- and T2-weighted Symptomatic, 17 (61%)
Asymptomatic, 11 (32%)