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Table 2 Summary of study designs, methodologies, and outcome of high-intensity zones (HIZs) in the lumbar spine

From: The association of high-intensity zones on MRI and low back pain: a systematic review

Author Year Sample size (N) Mean age (years) Radiologic methods (MRI) Prevalence The highest prevalence at disc level Association with LBP
Carragee et al. 2000 96 38    N/A No
Symptomatic, 42 Asymptomatic, 54 Symptomatic, 36 Asymptomatic, 40 1.5T anterior and posterior T2-weighted Symptomatic, 25 (59%) Asymptomatic, 85 (24%)
Hancock et al. 2012 60 37    N/A No
Symptomatic, 30 Control, 30 1.5T sagittal T1 and T2-weighted axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 18 (30%) Control, 7 (22%)
Takatalo et al. 2012 554     N/A No
Symptomatic, 387 Asymptomatic, 167 21 1.5T sagittal and axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 13 (3.2%) Asymptomatic, 4 (2%)
Wang et al. 2012 623     L4/5 Yes
Symptomatic, 317 Asymptomatic, 306 50 1.5T sagittal T1-weighted sagittal and axial T2-weighted Symptomatic, 115 (36%) Asymptomatic, 85 (28%)
Liu et al. 2014 151 43    L4/5 Yes
Symptomatic, 72 Asymptomatic, 79 Symptomatic, 44 Asymptomatic, 43 1.5T sagittal T1 and T2-weighted Symptomatic, 33 (45.8%) Asymptomatic, 16 (20%)
Yang et al. 2015 57 29    N/A Yes
Symptomatic, 25 Asymptomatic, 32 Symptomatic, 30 Asymptomatic, 28 3.0T sagittal and axial T1- and T2-weighted Symptomatic, 17 (61%) Asymptomatic, 11 (32%)