Volume 9 Supplement 1

11th International Conference on Conservative Management of Spinal Deformities - SOSORT 2014 Annual Meeting

Open Access

Investigation to analyse the correlation between ‘human plumbline distance’, ‘formetric plumbline distance’ and ‘inclinometry’ in a clinical setting: a pilot correlational study

  • Jason Black1,
  • Erika Maude1,
  • Juliet Mayes1,
  • David Glynn2 and
  • Michael Bradley1
Scoliosis20149(Suppl 1):O4

https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-7161-9-S1-O4

Published: 4 December 2014

Background

Sagittal plane measures are an important aspect of evaluation of patients with both Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and Hyperkyphosis. It is currently advised that the sagittal profile of AIS patients is measured clinically using Plumbline Distance (PD), yet competence of its use in clinical practice has not been regularly evaluated [3].

Aims

To determine the correlation between Human PD (HPD), Formetric PD (FPD) and Inclinometry measured clinically.

Design

Pilot correlational study.

Methods

27 consecutive female AIS patients aged 11-18 were measured prior to commencement of ScolioGold physiotherapy treatment with HPD, FPD and Inclinometry with measures repeated on completion of treatment. All measures were taken by one therapist (JM). FPD data considered was Cervical Apex (CA), Vertebral Prominence (VP), Lordotic Apex (LA) and Dimple Middle (DM).

Correlation was studied between singular measures of HPD vs. FPD, between predicted Kyphosis (C7+L3 vs VP+LA) and between both HPD and FPD vs. Inclinometry (C7+L3 or VP+LA vs Angle A+B).

Results

An initial analysis for normality (‘Shapiro-Wilk’ and ‘Skew and Kurtosis’) showed normal distributions in all variables except VP as measured by FPD and S1 as measured by HPD. Thus Pearson’s correlation was used in all cases except C7 vs. VP and S1 vs DM which utilised Spearman’s Correlation.

A strong positive correlation was shown between measures of HPD and FPD (Cervical vs. CA [r=0.574], C7 vs. VP [r=0.542], L3 vs. LA [r=0.683], S1 vs. DM [r=0.570]). A very strong correlation was demonstrated between kyphosis predictors in HPD and FPD (C7+L3 vs. VP+LA [r=0.782]). Similarly, Inclinometry showed a strong correlation with kyphosis predictors in both HPD and FPD (A+B vs. C7+L3 [r=0.563] or VP+LA [r=628]).

Investigative analysis of data demonstrated pre-treatment Inclinometer Kyphosis (A+B) as 24 degrees (SD 7.96) and FPD (VP+LA) as 50.77mm (SD 19.04).

Conclusion

This study has justified the use of HPD or Inclinometry in the absence of FPD in clinical settings to evaluate sagittal profiles in female patients with AIS for this small patient group. Future studies should be done to evaluate clinical correlation between radiographic kyphosis and HPD or Inclinometry, as well as considering the potential effect of inter-rater error.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Scoliosis SOS Clinic
(2)
Independent statistician

References

  1. Zaina F, Negrini S, Romano M, Aulisa A: Repeatability of different methods to collect in everyday clinics the sagittal profile of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis. 2007, 2 (Suppl1): S44-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Kotwicki T, Negrini S, Grivas TB, Rigo M, Maruyama T, Durmala J, Zaina F: Members of the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT): Methodology of evaluation of morphology of the spine and the trunk in idiopathic scoliosis and other spinal deformities – 6th SOSORT Consensus Paper. Scoliosis. 2009, 4: 26. 10.1186/1748-7161-4-26.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Zaina F, Negrini A, Atanasio S, Fusco C, Pizzetti P, Saveriqa F, Ziliani V, Negrini S: Validity of distances from the plumbline in sagittal plane deformities: repeatability, correlation with kyphosis angles and normative values. Scoliosis. 2009, 4 (Suppl 2): O11. 10.1186/1748-7161-4-S2-O11.PubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Black et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement